Bath and Kitchen Solutions
Technical Documents
A legacy in the art of know-how

Learn about the production processes of our products, from the raw material to the final product!


Raw material and forming production processes
Brass is the main raw material for taps. It is a metal alloy, composed of copper and zinc and it has been used for many applications since the 3rd century BC. It is highly recyclable, as it is possible to reintegrate the byproducts generated during the casting process into a new raw material. It can be transformed using various technologies. This material allows for a good reproduction of forms, a good finish and it guarantees a high resistance to corrosion.
The low-pressure casting process, as well as the forging and stamping processes allow us to obtain the first approximation to the desired geometry, thus ensuring an efficient use of raw material. The geometry obtained through these processes is refined in subsequent processes.

Mechanisation and brazing processes
The mechanisation process guarantees the detail, the dimensional accuracy in the interface with other components, as well as the adequate roughness for leak-proof connections. This is achieved with computer equipment with numerical control, such as milling machines and lathes.
Due to their complexity, some parts are obtained from several less complex parts and joined through the brazing process. This process, which is similar to welding, uses a metal alloy with a lower melting temperature than brass to join the parts, resulting in leak-proof connections with good mechanical strength.
Associated with these mechanisation processes there are processes to control the resulting characteristics and features.

Besides aesthetics, finishing processes ensure surfaces are protected and increase their resistance to corrosion and abrasion. These processes are composed of two stages: surface preparation defines the texture through sanding, polishing, brushing and chemical texturing. On the other hand, the coating stage defines colour, shine, hardness, and corrosion resistance of the finishing.
Oxidized finishes provide less protection and their appearance changes depending on the use of the product. Then there are painted finishes, which provide protection against corrosion. Galvanic coatings ensure high corrosion and abrasion protection.
In Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) it is possible to control the colour of the finishing. Besides, it gives surfaces excellent abrasion and corrosion resistance.
All the finished parts are inspected, thus ensuring they meet the highest quality standards.

Assembling and testing
A tap is made up of many components. To minimize mistakes in the collection and separation process, these components are stored in automatic warehouses which are an integral part of the production management system.
After being collected, components are sent to assembling stations, where products are assembled and tested by an experienced professional.
After assembly, a sampling from each batch is subject to extensive laboratory tests to determine product performance. This results in high quality products regarding aesthetics and performance.


The sanitaryware is formed by filling, in which ceramic slip (water suspension) fills a plaster mould. After a certain period of time, with the water absorbed by the plaster, the piece is removed from the mould.
The slip is poured, or pumped, into the moulds and the filling cycle is automatically controlled by the equipment.
The pieces are removed from the mould manually with the help of appropriate equipment.
The outer surfaces of the sanitaryware are covered with ceramic glaze. Critical interior areas can also be covered - for example the toilet siphon and the inner ring of rimless toilets.

Firing is the process of transforming the ceramic product by applying heat.
During this process we can observe the following changes:
   -Change in volume (contraction);
   -Aesthetic alteration of the surface;
   -Fusion of some of the components, transforming them into glass;
   -Crystallisation, with the formation of new phases;
   -Decreased permeability (porosity);;
   -Increased mechanical resistance.
During firing, the heat increases from room temperature to around 1,200 °C. The total cycle depends on product requirements, but usually from 16 to 24 hours.

Fired pieces are 100% inspected and classified according to previously defined criteria. CIFIAL has only one class: 1st choice.
In addition to visual inspection for aesthetic defects, all pieces are subject to various technical checks during the selection process:
     Cooling Cracks : All pieces are checked in detail in order to ensure that all pieces placed on the market do not have any cooking cracks, originating during the cooking process.
     Tightness: All toilets and bidets are tested in a vacuum equipment. Through this process it' s possible to guarantee the absence of interior cracks, or other defects, that could originate water leakage during its use and water outlet.
     Dimensions and Warping: All critical dimensions and warping of the pieces are inspected with "pass / no pass" tools. This process ensures dimensions, angles and surfaces are in accordance with the design.

Additional processes
CIFIAL carries out a series of final processes that enable it to place high quality products on the market:
     Grinding: The grinding of sanitaryware ensures it is perfectly positioned on the furniture, floor or wall.
     Cutting: In the BTW (back to wall) compact toilets the firing stability bars are removed to allow easier installation of the parts.
     Laser engraving: CIFIAL parts have the logo laser-engraved. This technology allows for more accurate engraving.
     Mechanism installation: For the comfort of customers, the flushing mechanisms are pre-installed.

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